Pomegranate: Evidence-Based Benefits of This Antioxidant Superstar

By Dr. Diane Fulton

Pomegranate, with its characteristic red arils, is small but mighty when it comes to substantial benefits to your health as a superfood.

Pomegranate has been called an antioxidant superstar. In fact, researchers have confirmed that pomegranate has three times the antioxidant power of red wine and green tea.[i] The antioxidant impact in pomegranate comes from compounds known as polyphenols. Pomegranate includes flavonoids (catechin and anthocyanins), condensed tannins, phenolic acids, hydrolysable tannins (punicalagin), alkaloids and lignans.

From lab studies of pomegranate compounds, scientists have verified that pomegranate has beneficial antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties.[ii],[iii] Isn’t it time to add pomegranate to your healthy routine?

Six Therapeutic Qualities of Pomegranate

1. Lowers Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and antioxidant defenses.[iv] This imbalance is caused by environmental stressors (i.e., ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, pollutants, pesticides, industrial chemicals, smoking, ozone and heavy metals) and internal factors (nutrition, inflammation, lifestyle, conditions like dementia, cancer, diabetes and chronic illnesses).[v]

Accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage has been linked to multiple pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases,[vi] diabetes, cancer, recovery from overexercise/injuries, skin diseases and premature aging.[vii]

Pomegranate’s antioxidant superpower decreases oxidative stress, which helps to prevent and improve these oxidative related diseases and subsequent symptoms.

2. Prevents Lifestyle Diseases and Lowers Complications

Lifestyle diseases are ailments that are primarily based on the day-to-day habits of people (such as being sedentary, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse) and include diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory illnesses, stroke and cancer. Precursors can be high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, high levels of fat in the blood, high levels of stress and obesity.[viii]

The antioxidant protection of pomegranate polyphenols helps prevent lifestyle related diseases by reducing ROS and increasing antioxidant activity.[ix] A meta-analysis of eight studies regarding pomegranate juice consumption and high blood pressure showed significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after taking pomegranate juice; researchers recommend including this fruit juice in your heart-healthy diet.[x]

Pomegranate was a potent antioxidant in diabetes-induced oxidative stress and fibrosis in a study of rats and partially ameliorated erectile dysfunction, a symptom caused by diabetes.[xi]

Consumption of concentrated pomegranate juice (50 grams per day) had favorable effects on two markers of inflammation (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IL6) and increased total antioxidant capacity by approximately 75% in a clinical study of 40 patients with Type 2 diabetes.[xii]

3. Reduces Cancer

Researchers found that pomegranate peel extract inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells, particularly in migration and invasion, which are two critical steps in prostate cancer metastasis.[xiii] In a study of hamsters, pomegranate peel extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in their lung fibroblasts by reducing ROS by 29% to 36%.

In human breast and colon cancer cells, pomegranate extract decreased cancer cell growth both in drug-sensitive cells by 15% to 30% and in drug resistant (doxorubicin-resistant) cells by 5% to 20%, suggesting the potential usefulness of pomegranate extract in people exposed to oxidative stress and as a therapy for human cancers.[xiv]

Natural and Non-Toxic Products. Up to 50% Off – Every Day (Ad)

Compared to juice, the total phenolic content and free radical scavenging potential was significantly higher in the pomegranate extract enhanced in a lab compared to its two fractions (anthocyanins and copigments) and showed the highest radical scavenging activity against galvinoxyl and DPPH radicals, oxidative stress markers in human liver cancer.

Results indicated that anthocyanins and copigments act together synergistically in reducing oxidative stress.[xv] Pomegranate was shown to improve oxidative stress levels in a jaundice-induced animal model.[xvi] Jaundice can be caused by hepatitis, gallstones, gallbladder cancer and pancreatic tumors.[xvii]

Preliminary studies show that pomegranate supplementation could prevent breast cancer by reducing two sex hormones related to breast cancer risk in a study of 64 healthy postmenopausal women who were randomly assigned to drink eight ounces of either 100% commercial pomegranate juice (intervention) or apple juice (control) for three weeks; the intervention group showed significant declines in both estrone and testosterone levels.[xviii]

A pomegranate emulsion containing various bioactive phytochemicals was found to exert substantial chemopreventive effect against induced mammary tumors in rats via antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions, which disrupted the estrogen hormone, signaling a possible breast cancer treatment for humans.[xix]

An oral capsule containing a blend of pomegranate, green tea, broccoli and turmeric, or an identical placebo, for six months was compared in 199 men with localized prostate cancer; the polyphenol food supplement group had 63% lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, a marker of progression of prostate cancer, compared to the control group.[xx]

In their comprehensive review of clinical trial studies, researchers confirmed that pomegranate plays a vital role in prevention and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and liver cancers.[xxi]

4. Boosts Recovery and Faster Healing of Injuries After Exercise

Consumption of pomegranate juice over three weeks improved two oxidative stress markers and thus decreased the oxidative damage caused by exercise in a study of 30 high-endurance athletes.[xxii]

Supplementation — 50 milliliters daily for two months — of pomegranate juice in a study of 19 Polish athletes found a significant strengthening of plasma antioxidant potential in the supplementing group measured by the increase of total antioxidant capacity and IL-6 levels.[xxiii]

Watermelon juice enriched with pomegranate and citrulline showed no increase in muscle damage and a significant maintenance of force during exercise and a significant decrease in the rating of perceived exertion and muscle soreness after exercise in 19 healthy men.[xxiv]

In a mice study, pomegranate red peel extract showed high antioxidant activity that significantly enhanced serum biochemical parameters and reduced oxidative stress; scientists recommended pomegranate for a daily animal diet or as a beverage for humans to gain antioxidant protective effects and improve health.[xxv]

Endurance running places substantial physiological strain on the body, which can develop into chronic inflammation and overuse injuries, but supplementation with pomegranate, curcumin and methlysulfonylmethane (MSM) reduced systemic inflammation and oxidative stress without adverse side effects in 15 marathon runners.[xxvi]

5. Improves Skin and Premature Aging

In a review of current studies, researchers found that phenolic compounds in pomegranate may have a protective effect on skin exposed to high levels of air pollution. That effect includes increasing antioxidant activity by reducing harmful ROS related to oxidative stress and lowering inflammatory markers such as cytokines and chemokines in skin diseases and decreased premature skin aging caused by particles in the air.[xxvii]

In addition, pomegranate was shown to be beneficial for reducing harmful effects of solar UVB radiation on animal skin[xxviii],[xxix] and ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) radiation on human skin.[xxx] Daily oral pomegranate consumption (eight ounces of pomegranate juice or 1,000 milligrams of pomegranate extract) enhanced protection from UV photo damage in a study of 74 women.[xxxi]

6. Decreases Inflammation

In a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials involving 572 subjects, pomegranate supplementation significantly reduced inflammation biomarkers of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the placebo group.[xxxii]

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) indicates your risk of developing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the heart’s arteries) and inflammation in your body. Coronary artery disease can lead to a heart attack.[xxxiii] Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a protein that helps regulate immune responses and is used as a marker of immune system activation. IL-6 levels can be elevated with inflammation, infection, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers.[xxxiv]

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) is a protein that contributes to inflammation as well. In healthy people, it is an essential part of the immune system, helping the body mount attacks against invading bacteria and viruses and heal damaged tissues; in those having autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, excess levels of TNF- α in the blood can lead to unnecessary inflammation and chronic pain.[xxxv]

Brain inflammation is one of the leading factors in neurological disorders like dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists found evidence that pomegranate peel extract provides preventive and progressive benefits in neural diseases by positively affecting spatial memory and decreasing biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration.[xxxvi]

In a placebo-controlled study of 261 non-demented individuals from 50 to 75 years old, daily consumption of pomegranate juice (230 milliliters) stabilized the treated group’s ability to learn visual information over a year.[xxxvii]

A study of rats with aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity showed that pomegranate peel extract could inhibit aluminum-induced oxidative stress and pathologies in the brain, possibly related to its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant abilities.[xxxviii]

Super Abilities of Pomegranate

Scientists are increasingly interested in the therapeutic benefits of pomegranate on diabetes, stroke recovery and clogged arteries. To learn more about pomegranate’s ability to improve your health, see GreenMedInfo.com’s article “6 Health Benefits of Pomegranate” and its database on pomegranate (the substance) and pomegranate peel.

 


References

[i] Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Oct;48(10):4581-9. doi: 10.1021/jf000404a. PMID: 11052704.

[ii] C Mayasankaravalli, K Deepika, D Esther Lydia, Reuben Agada, Dluya Thagriki, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Veeramani Chinnadurai, Othman Mohammed Othman Gatar, Ameer Khusro, Young Ock Kim, Hak-Jae Kim. Profiling the phyto-constituents offruits peel extract and accessing itsantioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory properties. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020 Dec ;27(12):3228-3234. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 33304128

[iii] Kandylis P, Kokkinomagoulos E. Food Applications and Potential Health Benefits of Pomegranate and its DerivativesFoods. 2020; 9(2):122. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020122

[iv] D. John Betteridge. What is oxidative stress? Metabolism, February 01, 2000; 49 (2), Supplement 1, 3-8, DOI: 10.1016/S0026-0495(00)80077-3

[v]  Medical News Today, Articles, Effects of Oxidative Stress. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324863#effects.

[vi] Taniyama Y, Griendling KK. Reactive oxygen species in the vasculature: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Hypertension. 2003 Dec;42(6):1075-81. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000100443.09293.4F. Epub 2003 Oct 27. PMID: 14581295.

[vii] Sena LA, Chandel NS. Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Mol Cell. 2012 Oct 26;48(2):158-67. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.09.025. PMID: 23102266; PMCID: PMC3484374.

[viii] Tabish SA (2017) Lifestyle Diseases: Consequences, Characteristics, Causes and Control. J Cardiol Curr Res 9(3): 00326. DOI: 10.15406/jccr.2017.09.00326

[ix] Chong Zhao, Takenori Sakaguchi, Kosuke Fujita, Hideyuki Ito, Norihisa Nishida, Akifumi Nagatomo, Yukimasa Tanaka-Azuma, Yoshinori Katakura. Pomegranate-Derived Polyphenols Reduce Reactive Oxygen Species Production via SIRT3-Mediated SOD2 Activation. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016 ;2016:2927131. Epub 2016 Oct 20. PMID: 27840668

[x] Amirhossein Sahebkar, Claudio Ferri, Paolo Giorgini, Simona Bo, Petr Nachtigal, Davide Grassi. Effects of pomegranate juice on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Nov 23 ;115:149-161. Epub 2016 Nov 23. PMID: 27888156

[xi] E Onal, D Yilmaz, E Kaya, T Bastaskın, N Bayatlı, S Gur. Pomegranate juice causes a partial improvement through lowering oxidative stress for erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Int J Impot Res. 2016 Sep 1. Epub 2016 Sep 1. PMID: 27581707

[xii] Farideh Shishehbor, Majid Mohammad Shahi, Mehdi Zarei, Azadeh Saki, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish, Fatemeh Shirani, Maryam Zare. Effects of Concentrated Pomegranate Juice on Subclinical Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan ;14(1):e33835. Epub 2016 Jan 30. PMID: 27279834

[xiii] Deng Y, Li Y, Yang F, Zeng A, Yang S, Luo Y, Zhang Y, Xie Y, Ye T, Xia Y, Yin W. The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Sep;93:976-984. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.008. Epub 2017 Jul 14. PMID: 28724216.

[xiv] Helena Moreira, Aleksandra Slezak, Anna Szyjka, Jan Oszmianski, Kazimierz Gasiorowski. Antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities of cistus and pomegranate polyphenols. Acta Pol Pharm. 2017 Mar ;74(2):688-698. PMID: 29624275

[xv] Tina Kostka, Johanna Josefine Ostberg-Potthoff, Karlis Briviba, Seiichi Matsugo, Peter Winterhalter, Tuba Esatbeyoglu. Pomegranate (L.) Extract and Its Anthocyanin and Copigment Fractions-Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Influence on Cellular Oxidative Stress. Foods. 2020 Nov 6 ;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6. PMID: 33172172

[xvi] E E Yilmaz, Z Arikanoğlu, A Turkoğlu, E Kiliç, H Yüksel, M Gümüş. The protective effects of pomegranate on liver and remote organs caused by experimental obstructive jaundice model. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Feb ;20(4):767-72. PMID: 26957283

[xvii] My Cleveland Clinic, Health, Diseases, Adult Jaundice. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15367-adult-jaundice

[xviii] Rachna Kapoor, Alayne Ronnenberg, Elaine Puleo, Robert Treat Chatterton, Joanne F Dorgan, Navindra P Seeram, Susan R Sturgeon. Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Hormonal Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk. Nutr Cancer. 2015 Oct ;67(7):1113-9. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PMID: 26327495

[xix] Animesh Mandal, Anupam Bishayee. Mechanism of Breast Cancer Preventive Action of Pomegranate: Disruption of Estrogen Receptor and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways. Molecules. 2015;20(12):22315-22328. Epub 2015 Dec 12. PMID: 26703530

[xx] R Thomas, M Williams, H Sharma, A Chaudry, P Bellamy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial evaluating the effect of a polyphenol-rich whole food supplement on PSA progression in men with prostate cancer-the UK NCRN Pomi-T study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2014 Mar 11. Epub 2014 Mar 11. PMID: 24614693

[xxi] Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi. (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention. Oncol Rev. 2018 Jan 30 ;12(1):345. Epub 2018 Jan 30. PMID: 29441150

[xxii] Fuster-Muñoz E, Roche E, Funes L, Martínez-Peinado P, Sempere JM, Vicente-Salar N. Effects of pomegranate juice in circulating parameters, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in endurance-based athletes: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition. 2016 May;32(5):539-45. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.11.002. Epub 2015 Dec 7. PMID: 26778544.

[xxiii] A Urbaniak, P Basta, K Ast, A Wołoszyn, J Kuriańska-Wołoszyn, Ewa Latour, A Skarpańska-Stejnborn. The impact of supplementation with pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) juice on selected antioxidant parameters and markers of iron metabolism in rowers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jul 24 ;15(1):35. Epub 2018 Jul 24. PMID: 30041701

[xxiv] Martínez-Sánchez A, Alacid F, Rubio-Arias JA, Fernández-Lobato B, Ramos-Campo DJ, Aguayo E. Consumption of Watermelon Juice Enriched in l-Citrulline and Pomegranate Ellagitannins Enhanced Metabolism during Physical Exercise. J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jun 7;65(22):4395-4404. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00586. Epub 2017 May 26. PMID: 28513179.

[xxv] D Aboelsoued, F A M Abo-Aziza, M H Mahmoud, K N Abdel Megeed, N M T Abu El Ezz, F M Abu-Salem. Anticryptosporidial effect of pomegranate peels water extract in experimentally infected mice with special reference to some biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity. J Parasit Dis. 2019 Jun ;43(2):215-228. Epub 2019 Jan 14. PMID: 31263326

[xxvi] Tanner EA, Gary MA, Michalik S, Davis AA, McFarlin BK. Optimized Curcumin, Pomegranate Extract, and Methylsulfonylmethane Reduce Acute, Systemic Inflammatory Response to a Half-marathon Race. Altern Ther Health Med. 2020 Jul 1:AT6137. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32619204.

[xxvii] Yong Chool Boo. Can Plant Phenolic Compounds Protect the Skin from Airborne Particulate Matter? Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Sep 6 ;8(9). Epub 2019 Sep 6. PMID: 31500121

[xxviii] Naghma Khan, Deeba N Syed, Harish Chandra Pal, Hasan Mukhtar, Farrukh Afaq. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits UVB-induced inflammation and proliferation by modulating NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mouse skin(†). Photochem Photobiol. 2011 Dec 19. Epub 2011 Dec 19. PMID: 22181855

[xxix] Mineka Yoshimura, Yuko Watanabe, Kouichi Kasai, Jun Yamakoshi, Takuro Koga. Inhibitory effect of an ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on tyrosinase activity and ultraviolet-induced pigmentation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Dec;69(12):2368-73. PMID: 16377895

[xxx] Lisbeth A Pacheco-Palencia, Giuliana Noratto, Lal Hingorani, Stephen T Talcott, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott. Protective effects of standardized pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenolic extract in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 24;56(18):8434-41. Epub 2008 Aug 22. PMID: 18717570

[xxxi] Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Ru-Po Lee, Jianjun Huang, Mark Hsu, Gail Thames, Irene Gilbuena, Jianfeng Long, Yunhui Xu, Esther HaeIn Park, Chi-Hong Tseng, Jenny Kim, David Heber, Zhaoping Li. Pomegranate Juice and Extract Consumption Increases the Resistance to UVB-induced Erythema and Changes the Skin Microbiome in Healthy Women: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 10 ;9(1):14528. Epub 2019 Oct 10. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50926-2. PMCID: PMC6787198 PMID: 31601842

[xxxii] Peng Wang, Qiang Zhang, Huijuan Hou, Zhiyong Liu, Li Wang, Reyhaneh Rasekhmagham, Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Heitor O Santos, Guangtao Yao. The effects of pomegranate supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Complement Ther Med. 2020 Mar ;49:102358. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32147056

[xxxiii] Mayo Clinic, Tests- Procedures, C-Reactive Protein Test, https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/c-reactive-protein-test/about/pac-20385228

[xxxiv] Lab Tests Online, Tests, Interleukin-6, https://labtestsonline.org/tests/interleukin-6

[xxxv] Medical News Today, Articles. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324841

[xxxvi] Maressa Caldeira Morzelle, Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado, Milena Telles, Danilo Mourelle, Patricia Bachiega, Hudson Sousa Buck, Tania Araujo Viel. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice. PLoS One. 2016 ;11(11):e0166123. Epub 2016 Nov 9. PMID: 27829013

[xxxvii] Prabha Siddarth, Zhaoping Li, Karen J Miller, Linda M Ercoli, David A Merril, Susanne M Henning, David Heber, Gary W Small, Randomized placebo-controlled study of the memory effects of pomegranate juice in middle-aged and older adultsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 111, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages 170-177, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz241

[xxxviii] Ahmed E Abdel Moneim. Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Dec ;150(1-3):328-36. Epub 2012 Sep 5. PMID: 22945624

Source: GreenMedInfo

This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2021
Visit our Re-post guidelines

Dr. Diane Fulton is Emeritus Professor at Clayton State University. She holds Ph.D./MBA in Business (University of Tennessee – Knoxville) and B.S. with Math/Secondary Education majors (University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee). During her 45-year career as administrator/professor teaching research and business, she authored 10 books, over 50 articles, and is now writing children’s books about the body, mindfulness and cross-cultural awareness. Her passion is to share her knowledge to integrate a healthy body, mind and soul. To reach her: Clayton University’s Emeritus Professors  Diane Fulton LINKED IN or Diane Fulton FACEBOOK.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of GreenMedInfo or its staff.

Image: Pixabay

Become a Natural Blaze Patron and Support Health Freedom

Become a Patron!

Get Natural Health News Delivered

Enter Email Below To Stay Informed!

10 Best Books To Survive Food Shortages & Famines


Your survival library won’t be complete without these books!

Plus get top natural health news delivered daily. Stay informed about health and food freedom, holistic remedies, and preparedness.

Claim your FREE download TODAY!

Enter your email address below to get instant access!

Enter Email Below To Stay Informed!

 
Thank you for sharing. Follow us for the latest updates.
Send this to a friend